ments of outrage and public oppression. Crimes committed solely for economic gain
without such elements should not be handled as gang crimes, Jiang said. Also, to be iden
tified as a gang members, suspects must be aware of the mafia-style nature of the activities they are involved in.
“We’ve seen cases where judicial workers at the grassroots level have wrongly identifie
d mafia-style criminal gangs, so clarifying the legal definition is very important. Such g
angs are sometimes associated with crimes such as organizing prostitution and drug traffic
king, but it doesn’t mean that any group that is involved in such criminal activities can be handled as a mafia-style gang,”
said Lin Wei, vice-president of the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and an expert in law.
According to the directive, gang members who commit minor crimes or who cause little bodi
ly harm to others, and who confess, can be given lenient sentences or even exempted from punishment. But those w
ho commit brutal crimes and cause severe harm to society won’t receive leniency, even if they confess.
niversity and the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Genetics and Development Biology. Their findings were published in the journal Science on Friday.
About 20 years ago, scientists discovered that plants, like animals, have robust immune sys
tems that can protect them from pathogens including viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites.
Plants also have a unique “lure and catch” immune response to de
al with pathogens that have breached their cellular defense, but exactly how this work
ed remained unknown, said Zhou Jianmin, a researcher at the institute and one of the main scientists behind the study.
To probe this mystery, Zhou and his team investigated a protein called AvrAC, which is pro
duced by a bacterial pathogen that causes black rot on cabbage. The bacterium injects AvrAC int
o plant cells, where it acts as a “biochemical weapon” weakening the plant’s immune system.
They discovered that some plants have evolved to carry a resistance protein called ZAR1 that can detect bacterial prot
eins like AvrAC. These plants use special proteins as “bait” and trick the bacterial protein into attacking them inst
ead. While the bait is being attacked, ZAR1 is activated to form a multiprotein structure called resistosome, Zhou said.
ating PMI, rose to a six-month high at 52.7 in March, up 3.2 percentage points from February.
The sub-index for new orders went up 1 percentage point from February to 51.6 in March, the highest in half a year, showing growing momentum in market orders.
The PMI for high-tech manufacturing, equipment manufacturing and consumer goods manufacturi
ng stood at 52, 51.2 and 51.4, respectively, all above the general manufacturing PMI, showing rising strength of new sources of growth.
Large companies saw the manufacturing PMI down 0.4 percentage points to 51.1, whereas t
he readings for medium-sized and small companies rose 3 and 4 percentage points, respectively.
China’s non-manufacturing activities pick up in March
The purchasing managers’ index (PMI) for China’s non-manufacturing sector came i
n at 54.8 in March, up from 54.3 in February, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said Sunday.
Bank of Beijing Co Ltd said on Friday that it has got the necessary board approvals for the esta
blishment of a joint venture with Netherlands-based ING Bank NV, in which the latter will be the majority partner.
With a total investment of 3 billion yuan ($448 million), the forthcoming joint-venture bank, whic
h is still waiting for regulatory approval, may become China’s first commercial lender in which a for
eign shareholder has a controlling interest. According to the plan, ING Bank will hold a 51 percent stake, and Bank of Beijing 49 percent.
Drawing on the experience of ING Bank in the successful development of direct ba
nking services, the joint venture will build a brand in the area of digital banking with the help of financial tec
hnologies and try to become a benchmark in terms of the implementation of China’s push to further open
up its financial sector to foreign investors, said the mid-tier commercial lender BOB in an announcement.
Different from the traditional counter-based model, the direct banking model uses e-cha
nnels to provide financial products and therefore has no restriction of time, regions or geographic branches.